“Does your child spend most of their time playing? Is the type of game the only thing that changes even as he gets older? But what does play mean for the child? Which games or toys should be preferred according to the developmental periods in which age range? What kind of results can await me when I do not introduce my child to the right games at the right age? Dear parents, all these questions will be answered in this article.
Play a game; teaches children a lot of things cognitively, physically, psychologically. It helps in many issues such as providing emotion transfer, developing imagination. Again, we benefit greatly from games for behavior gain or extinction. During the developmental stages of children, observations were made from different angles and these were theorized. Freud, Piget, Erikson, and Bandura are the holders of these prominent observations. There must be certain gains at certain ages. We can teach these achievements by concentrating the child’s attention with toys, allowing them to extract some of their life experiences from the little games themselves, allowing them to taste the role they want and decide which one suits them. Adult people choose to talk as a form of agreement. The tools they use to speak are words. Children, on the other hand, choose the game as a way of expressing themselves. Their words are their toys. Play and toys are the language of the child. Language is a way of learning and teaching for us adults. It helps us to convey our feelings to the other party. Just as we pay attention to the words we choose when using language, we should show the same attention and care in choosing toys. Otherwise, we can destroy the behaviors we want to instill in the child, the mood we want to strengthen. For example, choosing toys that are neither too low nor too high for the age and skills of the child may cause boredom or anxiety in the child.
Babies between 4 and 6 months fall into the oral stage group in Sigmund Freud’s theory of psychosexual development. Babies in this period need care as they cannot meet their basic needs like us adults. These are needs such as feeding and cleaning the bottom. The baby waits for his needs to be met. In this process, they acquire the receiving behavior. And it’s not just that. He has also seen the behavior of giving from people who give to himself. The organs that babies in this period enjoy are their mouths. At the same time, Freud argues that the management is in the hands of the id during this period. According to Piaget’s cognitive theory, babies between these months are in the sensory-motor stage. Object permanence has not yet been formed in infants in this period. Object permanence, on the other hand, is the infant’s lack of effort to search for that object, since he or she has a belief that the object that is out of sight has disappeared. At the same time, he says that the child is open to exploration in this period, watches the environment, and tends to repeat the behavior that he/she has experienced, albeit by chance. According to Erikson’s psychosocial approach, children in this age group are in what he calls basic trust versus mistrust. Erikson emphasizes that since children in this period cannot meet their basic needs, they establish a bond with the person who meets them. He mentions that the lack of this bond can lead to situations such as anxiety, insecurity and skepticism in the child. Children between the ages of 4 and 6 months are in the behaviors of exploring, understanding and imitating. For this reason, in addition to toys that play songs, make animal sounds, and that can attract the attention of the child, toys such as walkers, teethers, pacifiers, and rattles can be used to support language, cognitive and physical development.
Children aged 3-4 years are in the anal period according to Freud. Children in the anal period have passed the walking phase, so they have gained independence with toilet training. During toilet training, the child may tend to take pleasure from actions such as holding his stool. Some of the wrong attitudes in this period will be anal or personal problems in the future.
could be the cause of the problems. During the anal period, management moves from the id to the superego. According to Piaget, children aged 3-4 years are in the pre-procedure period. In this period, children with object permanence use symbolization for some objects that are not present in the environment. In addition, verbal schemas begin to appear in this period. The child begins to characterize similar-sounding instruments in a group. For example, one for all vehicles such as cars, trucks, trains.
makes a sound. In this period, thinking as if the objects called animate have living features and egocentrism also play an active role in this period. The child thinks that we like what he likes. According to Erikson, children aged 3-4 years are a period of guilt versus entrepreneurship. With the independence achieved, the real discoveries began. The child begins to think about the roles that he discovers while playing, which are suitable for him. During this period they
wants the special attention shown to continue in some way. If this does not happen, the child may feel guilty and anxious. Toys suitable for this group level, legos, play dough, dolls, imitation cards of household items, creating visual stories by making use of their own photos and things they have experienced in a day, etc. According to Freud, children aged 8-10 are in the latent period. During this period, the ego quickly comes to the fore. Cognitive and emotional development is recorded. Causality is established. Evaluations are more realistic. According to Piaget, children between the ages of 8 and 10 are concrete.
are in the operational phase. In this process, the transition from the symbolization behavior to the logical process is made. The setup of schematics is now based on logic. Reasoning and the ability to fully comprehend the laws of conservation take place in this period. According to Erik Erikson, children between the ages of 8 and 10 are in a period of humiliation versus productivity. This period means that children enter a new environment when they start school. The child gains new knowledge and abilities as well as learning identities such as studentship and friendship given to him by his new environment. However, situations such as not being appreciated enough or feeling inadequate during these situations can lead to anxiety.
Toys suitable for this group level can be toys that help develop intelligence, memory, strategy and maybe the word pool. Chess, scrabble, taboo, memory cards, puzzle etc. Albert Bandura mentions that children learn some behaviors using observation and imitation. In fact, play and toys are very important in this period. For example, we can choose to tell the child the behavior that should not be repeated by playing instead of showing the child directly by getting angry or warning. This can be a much more memorable solution without embarrassing, worrying or making her feel inadequate. In other words, the game is our greatest helper in gaining attention, supporting language, cognitive abilities, increasing motor skills, as well as learning and keeping the child emotionally strong.
Edited by: Dr. Ps. Damla KANKAYA SÜNTEROĞLU
Posted by Psychologist Buse Sari